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Going back in history to the Cold War, espionage was a big deal as countries seeking to gain the advantage over their adversary, used spies to gather detailed information and report back.Given today’s technology, this week’s reading material focused on cyber espionage and it provided some good insight as some of the threats posed by other countries.In defining the term cyber espionage, it involves the unauthorized probing of a target’s computer configuration to evaluate its system defense or the unauthorized viewing and copying of data files (Kramer, Starr, & Wentz, 2009, p. 423).The 2016 Presidential Election is the perfect example in explaining cyber espionage.Majority of the polls favored Democratic Candidate Hillary Clinton; however, in the wake of the email leaks so close to the election coupled with other campaign issues, Republican Candidate Donald Trump shocked the world and was elected the 45th President of the United States.As a result, the Russian government is allegedly involved despite repeated denials.

Hacktivism is usually understood as the manipulation of digital information to promote a political ideology, often expressing their dissatisfaction with various policies (Kramer, Starr, & Wentz, 2009, p. 439). In comparing hacktivism and cyber espionage, one seeks to gain information while the other seeks to change the way the information affects others. One of most recognized hacktivists groups is Anonymous.ISIS has a huge online following recruiting in a manner that was unprecedented.In response to ISIS recent activities including its affiliation with the Orlando nightclub shooting, claimed to have hacked into about 1,500 pro-ISIS Twitter accounts (CBS, 2016).Because of this, in addition to other methods employed by others, the group is rarely talked about in the news today.They completely changed the manner in which this group communicates. While both cyber espionage and hactivism have their differences, both are extremely dangerous

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