#### What is the annual incidence rate (per 1,000 persons) of lung cancer, if it is diagnosed in 70 patients per year within a community of 30,000 unaffected individuals? (Please show your calculations) [ONE POINT]

Epidemly and biostat

give a full detailed answer to each question. please explain why each answer is true or false. please give a detailed rational for the multiple choice….. sources that may help

1. Gordis, L. (2009). Epidemiology: with Student Consult (4

th

Ed). Print and Online Access. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

http://www.amazon.com/Epidemiology-4th-Edition-Leon-Gordis/dp/1416040021

2. Polit D.F. (2010). Statistics and Data Analysis for Nursing Research (2nd Edition)

3. Grove, S. K. (2007). Statistics for Health Care Research: A Practical Workbook. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders. ISBN:

9781455709960

http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/statistics-for-health-care-research-susan-k-grove/1100526452?cm_mmc=googlepla-_textbook_notinstock_26to75_pt108-_-q000000633-_9781416002260&cm_mmca2=pla&ean=9781416002260&isbn=9781416002260&r=1

Assignment 1

Use the space assigned after each question for your answer. All the questions must be answered, justified USING YOUE OWN WORDS and show your calculations for credit. The Assignment includes 16 questions.

Q1. The crude mortality rate fluctuated moderately in New York City between 1940 and 1980, yet the age adjusted rate fell by 42% (see table below). What is the most probable explanation? [ONE POINT]

New York City United States

Year Age adjusted Crude Age adjusted Crude

1940 11.3 10.2 10.8 10.8

1950 8.9 10.0 8.4 9.6

1960 8.1 11.1 7.6 9.5

1970 7.7 11.2 7.1 9.5

1980 6.6 10.8 5.9 8.9

Q2. There were 1,859,000 deaths in the United States in 1982. What additional information is required to compute the crude mortality rate? [ONE POINT]

For Questions 3, and 4, answer if the statements are true or false

Q3. Case fatality measures the rate at which people without a disease develop the disease during a specific period of time. [ONE POINT]

1. True 2. False

Q4. Incidence is a measure of disease frequency [ONE POINT]

1. True 2. False

Q5. A city contains 100,000 people (45,000 males and 55,000 females), and 1,000 people die per year (600 males and 400 females). There were 50 cases (40 males and 10 females) of lung cancer per year, of whom 45 died (39 males and 6 females). Calculate:

a. Crude mortality rate [ONE POINT]

b. Sex-specific mortality rate [ONE POINT]

c. Case fatality rate for lung cancer [ONE POINT]

d. proportionate mortality rate (PMR) for lung cancer [ONE POINT]

Q6. What is the annual incidence rate (per 1,000 persons) of lung cancer, if it is diagnosed in 70 patients per year within a community of 30,000 unaffected individuals? (Please show your calculations) [ONE POINT]

Annual incidence is ___________________________________________

Q7. Colon cancer is diagnosed in 20 patients per year within a community of 10,000 unaffected individuals. Half of the affected individuals die from colon cancer. What is the case fatality of colon cancer in this community? (Please show your calculations) [ONE POINT]

The case fatality for colon cancer is ______________________________________

Q8. Breast cancer is diagnosed in 20 patients per year within a community of 10,000 unaffected individuals. A screening test is applied to all residents of this community. What is the sensitivity (in %) of the screening test, if it detects 9 of the breast cancers. What is the specificity if the test correctly determines that 9,900 of the unaffected persons do not have breast cancer? (Please show your calculations)

a. The sensitivity of the test is [ONE POINT]_______________________________

b. The specificity of the test is [ONE POINT] _____________________________

c. Write comments about the validity of the screening test. [ONE POINT]

Q9. A physical examination and an audiometric test were given to 500 persons with suspected hearing problems, of whom 400 were actually found to have them. The results of the examinations were as follows:

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1- Physical examination Hearing problems

Results Present Absent

Positive 340 20

Negative 60 80

a. Sensitivity of the physical examination [ONE POINT] =

b. Specificity of the physical examination [ONE POINT] =

c. Predicted value positive [ONE POINT] =

2- Audiometric test Hearing problems

Results Present Absent

Positive 380 10

Negative 20 90

a. Sensitivity of the audiometric test [ONE POINT]=

b. Specificity of the audiometric test [ONE POINT]=

Q9a. Compared with the physical examination, the audiometric test is: [ONE POINT]

a. Equally sensitive and specific

b. Less sensitive and less specific

c. Less sensitive and more specific

d. More sensitive and less specific

e. More sensitive and more specific

Q10. The age adjusted mortality rates are used to: [ONE POINT]

a. Compare deaths in persons of the same age groups

b. Correct death rates for errors in the statement of age

c. Eliminate the effects of differences in the age distributions of populations in comparing death rates

d. Determine the actual number of deaths that occurred in specific age groups in a population

Q11. The table below shows the population and # of deaths from disease Z.

Age Community X Community Y

# of people # of death from disease Z # of people # of death from disease Z

Young 5,000 55 2000 39

Old 9,000 110 1000 61

. .

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