Treponema pallidum pertenue

1) The tropical skin disease called yams is transmitted by direct contact. It causative agent, Treponema pallidum pertenue , is indistinguishable  from T. Pallidum. Syphilis epidemics in Europe coincided with the return of Columbus from the New World. How might T. Pallidum pertenue have evolved into T. Pallidum in the temperature climate of Europe?

2) Why can frequent douching be a predisposing factor to bacterial vaginosis, Vulvovaginal candidiasis or trichomoniasis?

3) Neisseria is cultured on Thayer-Martin media consisting of chocolate agar and nystatin incubated in a 5% CO2 environment. How is this selective for Neisseria?

4) The list below is a key selected microorganism that cause genitourinary infections. Complete this by listing genera discussed in this chapter in the blanks that correspond to their respective characteristics

Gram-negative bacterial Spirochete Aerobic 

Anaerobic Coccus 

Oxidase positive 

Bacillus nonmotile 

Gram positive wall

Obligate intracellular parasite

Lacking cell wall



Pseudohypae Protozoa


No organism observed/cultured from patient


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