Please follow the instructor carefully. There are 4 Discussions ,your response to classmates should be at least one paragraph for each Discussion, address the discussion topic or question, be respectful, and add to the discussion. You may draw upon personal experience, course or scholarly references, citing appropriately. Restating the primary response, or agreeing or disagreeing without supporting statements will result in a lower grade.
In reference to including a paragraph for both primary and peer responses, 4-5 sentences constitute a paragraph.
In my community the biggest threat in my opinion is the San Andreas Fault. The San Andreas fault is a fault line in California that is about 800 miles long if you include all of the curves, 700 if you measure in a straight line. This fault is one of the most famous in the world, and that is due to the amount of activity constantly being reported. Ever since childhood I have heard about “the big one” a massive earthquake that is supposed to hit when this fault splits. There have even been stories that California will completely break off of the US. The United States Geological Society tells us that, “The paleosceismic data on different parts of the San Andreas Fault Zone are all telling us that some sections appear to be past the average, or ‘overdue’ for a significant earthquake, But the data can’t be used to make predictions: we do not understand earthquakes well enough to know exactly where the next earthquake will occur, what the magnitude will be, or exactly when it will happen.” If a large magnitude earthquake hit, it would result in a very large scale incident affecting emergency services, hospitals, electric companies, water companies, and pretty much everyone. While building codes in California are very strict, many buildings have not actually been tested in a real life event and may not hold as strong as they are intended to. Hospitals also run many drills, but in the event of a major disaster the amout of patients could far outweigh the resources available. Water and gas lines could burst, and freeways could collapse. Overall the entire state could be placed into disarray that all of the planning possible may not prepare us for.
Living in California we see a little bit of everything depending on what part of the state you live in. I went searching for risks of an incident in my area and found the CAL OES website that lets you search a community by zip code to show what that community is most at risk for. I live in the northern part of San Diego County. Like all Californians we are at risk for earthquakes, moderate and intense sizes. My community is also at risk for flooding. On the positive side we are outside the zone for tsunamis. Every year during fire season I feel like my community is at risk for fires due to the amount of hills, mountains, trees and bushes in my neighborhood but according to the CAL OES website, my community is outside of the fire hazard area.
Emergency management involves plans, structures and arrangements established to engage the normal endeavors of government, voluntary and private agencies in a comprehensive and coordinated way to respond to the whole spectrum of emergency needs (What is Emergency Management, n.d.). Over the course of history, emergency management continues to evolve due to the learning process of each situation that occurs local, state, country, and globally. Various approaches and programs have been developed to address these needs in domestic and global contexts, including initiatives to strengthen public health preparedness and global health security (Rose, Murthy, Brooks, & Bryant, 2017). We learn from what works and what doesn’t in the context of how we respond to emergencies. Public health continues to progress and evolve. Emergency management continues to progress and evolve as well.
An example of emergency management learning from history is the infamous 9/11 attacks on the twin towers in New York City. The relationship between public health and emergency management came into sharper focus after the events of September 11, 2001, and efforts to strengthen ties have continued to evolve (Rose, Murthy, Brooks, & Bryant, n.d.). Going through natural disasters, terrorist attacks, infectious disease and other emergencies being prepared is an important factor in protecting the local communities, state and the country from a repeat of history. Furthermore, learning from history can help broaden and expand emergency management.
Emergency Management learns from history in many ways; from natural disaster preparedness to response to terrorist attacks. Two major historical examples are September 11th attacks and Hurricane Katrina 2005. From the September 11th attacks lessons learned included communication and coordination, the triage and movement of patients from the scene, and the preparation of hospitals. (Simon & Teperman, 2001) According to the George W. Bush White House archives lessons learned for emergency responses included the response of state and local governments, the knowledge and plan in case of disasters, and insufficient planning and coordination. (United States, 2006) In both cases communication has significant failures and inadequacies. According to the textbook communication needs must be addressed in all planning and then have backup systems in place in the event primary communications fail. However, like the book mentions funding and the overall cost of many communication methods cause hospitals and healthcare setting to have underfunded communication systems. (Reilly & Markeson, 2011)