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the conceptual foundation of adaptation

the conceptual foundation of adaptation. It identifies the positive role that nursing plays in the promotion and enhancement of client adaptation to environments that facilitate the healing process.

· Leiningerï’s culture care theory is pertinent in the current multicultural healthcare environment where nurses are exposed to diverse cultures.

· Penderï’s health promotion and disease prevention theory can be called as a “direction setting exercise” for nursing professionals. It believes in fostering the spirit of health promotion and disease and risk reduction.


From the chapter, Models and Theories Focused on Nursing Goals and Functions, read the following: The Health Promotion Model: Nola J. Pender

From the chapter, Models and Theories Focused on a Systems Approach, read the following:

The Roy Adaptation Model

From the chapter, Models and Theories Focused on Culture, read the following:

Leininger’s Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory and Model


SO, THAT IS WHY I ASSUMED THAT HAS TO BE ONE OF THEM (the conceptual foundation of adaptation)




Week 4 Chapter 17


Models and Theories Focused on Nursing Goals and Functions


The Health Promotion Model: Nola J. Pender


Nola J. Pender was born in 1941 in Lansing, Michigan. She graduated in 1962 with a diploma in nursing. In 1964, Pender completed a bachelor’s of science in nursing at Michigan State University. By 1969, she had completed a doctor of philosophy in psychology and education. During this time in her career, Pender began looking at health and nursing in a broad way, including defining the goal of nursing care as optimal health.

In 1975, Pender published a model for preventive health behavior; her health promotion model first appeared in the first edition of the text Health Promotion in Nursing Practice in 1982. Pender’s health promotion model has its foundation in Albert Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory (which postulates that cognitive processes affect behavior change) and is influenced by Fishbein’s (1967) theory of reasoned action (which asserts that personal attitudes and social norms affect behavior).

Pender’s Health Promotion Model

McCullagh (2009) labeled Pender’s health promotion model as a middle-range integrative theory, and rightly so. Fawcett (2005) decisively presented the difference between a conceptual model for nursing and a model for middle-range theory. A model for middle-range theory is usually a graphic representation or schematic diagram of a middle-range theory. McCullagh’s (2009) rationale for labeling Pender’s model a middle-range integrative theory is that it portrays the multidimensionality of persons interacting with their interpersonal and physical environments as they pursue health while integrating constructs from expectancy-value theory and social cognitive theory with a nursing perspective of holistic human functioning (Pender, 1996). With the third edition of Health Promotion in Nursing Practice (1996), Pender revised the health promotion model significantly. This revised model is the subject of the discussion in this chapter.

Pender’s health promotion model includes three major categories: (1) individual characteristics and experiences, (2) behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and (3) behavioral outcome. Each of these categories will be considered here separately.