Current Situation of Medical Errors Prepared by Asma Alshammari Alhanoof Alaniz Teflah Ali Mai Alrweeli Munyfaa Aldhafeeri Norah AlmoteriIntroductionHealth care processes are increasingly being implicated in causing harm to patients. Medical errors and adverse events are primarily responsible for this harm. These errors, which may occur at every level of the custom are both common and diverse in nature. Medical errors can occur anywhere in the health care system in hospitals, clinics, surgery centers, doctors’ offices, nursing homes, pharmacies, and patients’ homes and can have serious consequences. Errors can involve medicines, surgery, diagnosis, equipment, or lab reports. Medical errors represent a serious public health problem and pose a threat to patient safety. As health care institutions establish “error” as a clinical and research priority, the answer to perhaps the most fundamental question remains elusive: What is a medical error? To reduce medical error, accurate measurements of its incidence, based on clear and consistent definitions, are essential prerequisites for effective action.
Despite a growing body of literature and research on error in medicine, few studies have defined or measured “medical error” directly. Instead, researchers have adopted surrogate measures of error that largely depend on adverse patient outcomes or injury (i.e., are outcome-dependent).
A lack of standardized nomenclature and the use of multiple and overlapping definitions of medical error have hindered data synthesis, analysis, collaborative work and evaluation of the impact of changes in health care delivery. Medical error is defined as “failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim”. A medical error is a threat to patient safety and has a negative effect on health as well.
Definition of Medical Error
Medical error the term “error” has been variously defined. The Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1998) defines it as “mistake” or the condition of being morally “wrong”. Error has also been defined in a wider context as the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim (Reason, 1990). Although the definition of “error” has its origins in behavioral psychology, the term is appropriate for medical usage. Using Reason’s definition, IOM has tried to separate medical error into two parts (Kohn et al., 2000): the first half of the definition constitutes “error of execution” and the latter half, “error of planning.” In this context, two other related terms, “adverse event” and “patient safety.” Bates et al. (1997) defined adverse events as injuries that result from medical management, rather than from the underlying disease. Patient safety, as defined by IOM, is freedom from accidental injury (Kohn et al., 2000). All three terms, “medical error,” “adverse event,” and “patient safety” complement one another.
Type of medical error
· Their two types of medical error according to moral and medical error according to sit or event
Medical error According to moral: