Question 1 of 402.5 PointsIn low-constraint studies:[removed]A. analysis is only possible if we use complex statistical software.[removed]B. coding of data is generally necessary before analysis.[removed]C. direct analysis can always be undertaken.[removed]D. there is often no data to analyze.Question 2 of 402.5 PointsA survey is most useful in gathering data on the:[removed]A. knowledge base of participants.[removed]B. attitudes of participants.[removed]C. causes of participants’ behavior.[removed]D. Both A and BQuestion 3 of 402.5 PointsIf an obtained correlation was 0.50, the coefficient of determination would be:[removed]A. 0.50.[removed]B. 0.25.[removed]C. -0.50.[removed]D. 0.00.Question 4 of 402.5 PointsA strong relationship between two variables:[removed]A. can imply causality in differential research.[removed]B. cannot imply causality in differential research.[removed]C. can imply causality in differential research but not in correlational research.[removed]D. is entirely meaningless.Question 5 of 402.5 PointsCarrying out a survey by interviewing the first 100 people coming out of a movie theater would be an example of:[removed]A. a status survey.[removed]B. nonprobability sampling.[removed]C. probability sampling.[removed]D. simple random sampling.Question 6 of 402.5 PointsMilfont (2009) found that desirable responding did not impact the self-reporting of environmental attitudes and behavior. What methodological issues might decrease the credibility of this claim?[removed]A. Ecological behavior was self-reported instead of measuring actual behavior.[removed]B. The sample used was made up only self-reported environmentalists.[removed]C. Environmental attitudes were not related to environmental behavior in this study.[removed]D. None of the above was true of the study.Question 7 of 402.5 PointsA researcher wants to study bonding behavior in chimpanzees. Unfortunately, the researcher has no real knowledge about chimpanzees, and there is no information on bonding in the literature. Which of the following would be the most appropriate way to begin to study the topic?[removed]A. Archival research[removed]B. Ex post facto methodology[removed]C. Experimental research[removed]D. Naturalistic observationQuestion 8 of 402.5 PointsWhat is the reason for this statement: “In differential research, we are actually studying relationships between variables”?[removed]A. Correlation coefficients are calculated.[removed]B. The strength of the relationship between dependent variables is measured.[removed]C. Differential research involves only measuring variables and not manipulating them.[removed]D. Contingent relationships are carefully measured.Question 9 of 402.5 PointsThe problem of participants’ contrived consistency on self-report measures can be reduced by:[removed]A. including fewer items.[removed]B. using appropriate statistical controls.[removed]C. making the participant aware of what the researcher is interested in.[removed]D. adding filler items.Question 10 of 402.5 PointsWhat is the primary ethical concern in low-constraint research?[removed]A. Confidentiality[removed]B. Researcher’s access to sensitive information[removed]C. Informed consent[removed]D. All of the aboveQuestion 11 of 402.5 PointsArchival research is an example of:[removed]A. single-subject designs.[removed]B. an ANOVA.[removed]C. low-constraint field research.[removed]D. high-constraint laboratory research.Question 12 of 402.5 PointsRosenhan investigated the experiences of psychiatric patients in mental hospitals by:[removed]A. asking patients to describe their experiences.[removed]B. unobtrusively observing the behavior of patients on psychiatric hospital wards.[removed]C. asking normal people to admit themselves to mental hospitals by feigning symptoms.[removed]D. asking psychiatrists to describe the environment of a typical mental hospital.Question 13 of 402.5 PointsA probability statement such as “given that event X occurred, then the probability of event Y occurring is high” is referred to as a(n):[removed]A. event notation.[removed]B. corollary.[removed]C. certainty statement.[removed]D. contingency.Question 14 of 402.5 PointsOne of the most important uses of a correlation is its potential use in:[removed]A. causal inferences.[removed]B. determining differences between groups.[removed]C. enhancing internal validity.[removed]D. the prediction of future events.Question 15 of 402.5 PointsLow-constraint research enables us to obtain useful information about:[removed]A. techniques for manipulating variables.[removed]B. causality.[removed]C. relationships among variables.[removed]D. making and testing predictions.Question 16 of 402.5 PointsAn area of concern that is more problematic in laboratory research than in low-constraint field work in psychology is:[removed]A. scientific validity.[removed]B. generalizability of findings.[removed]C. that lab experiments are unethical.[removed]D. that most human behavior can only be evaluated in naturalistic environments.Question 17 of 402.5 PointsWithout experimentation:[removed]A. no conclusions can be drawn.[removed]B. strong causal conclusions can still be drawn.[removed]C. drawing strong conclusions is difficult.[removed]D. drawing strong conclusions is easy.Question 18 of 402.5 PointsAsking participants in a survey a question such as, “What is your opinion of the way the economy is being handled by the president?” is an example of a(n) __________ question.[removed]A. open-ended[removed]B. multiple-choice[removed]C. Likert scale[removed]D. None of the aboveQuestion 19 of 402.5 PointsIn analyzing data in differential research, if we have score data and more than two groups, we would typically use a(n):[removed]A. Mann-Whitney U-Test.[removed]B. analysis of variance (ANOVA).[removed]C. chi-square test.[removed]D. correlated t-test.Question 20 of 402.5 PointsA researcher wants to study the effects of attention on ability to perform a task. The participant’s attention is recorded by a research assistant that the participant knows is watching. A problem with this design is:[removed]A. measurement reactivity.[removed]B. participant observer bias.[removed]C. unobtrusive measurement.[removed]D. obtrusive participant measurement.Question 21 of 402.5 PointsTesting effects are most pronounced in:[removed]A. measures of skill.[removed]B. elderly participants.[removed]C. young participants.[removed]D. nonverbal tests.Question 22 of 402.5 PointsWhich of the following characterizes experimental research?[removed]A. Seeking the strength and direction of relationships[removed]B. Hypothesis generating as the major aim[removed]C. High control and causal inferences[removed]D. The goal of observing contingent relationshipsQuestion 23 of 402.5 PointsMultiple observers should be used in psychology when:[removed]A. observations are not completely subjective.[removed]B. there are questions about objectivity in making observations.[removed]C. it is thought that one observer is sufficient.[removed]D. the measure is unreliable.Question 24 of 402.5 PointsFailure to rule out __________ variables results in threats to __________ validity.[removed]A. confounding; internal[removed]B. confounding; external[removed]C. dependent; internal[removed]D. dependent; externalQuestion 25 of 402.5 PointsA researcher wants to do a study of pretest anxiety. He devises two possible ways of measuring pretest anxiety: (1) attaching electrodes to the palm and measuring the amount of sweat produced; (2) having observers rate participants on how anxious they look. Which of the following is true?[removed]A. Both are subjective measures.[removed]B. Both are objective measures.[removed]C. #1 is objective; #2 is subjective.[removed]D. #1 is subjective; #2 is objective.Question 26 of 402.5 PointsMatched random assignment is used in situations in which random assignment would:[removed]A. increase chances of unequal sample sizes.[removed]B. cause possible confounding because the groups may be unequal on key dimensions.[removed]C. not be possible because the researcher has too much prior knowledge about the participants.[removed]D. not be possible because the researcher has too little prior knowledge about the participants.Question 27 of 402.5 PointsIf the null hypothesis has been rejected, we should consider that:[removed]A. the causal hypothesis can be accepted.[removed]B. the causal hypothesis cannot be rejected.[removed]C. extraneous variables may have affected the study.[removed]D. extraneous variables do not affect the hypothesis.Question 28 of 402.5 PointsIf we wish to apply results of a study to a wider population, the type of validity that we would be concerned about would be __________ validity.[removed]A. statistical[removed]B. internal[removed]C. external[removed]D. constructQuestion 29 of 402.5 PointsIn a double-blind control procedure:[removed]A. the participants and researcher are blind to assignment of participants.[removed]B. the laboratory is not illuminated.[removed]C. the researcher and the research assistant(s) are blind to assignment to the experimental group.[removed]D. no one knows which participants are assigned to the experimental group.Question 30 of 402.5 PointsWhich confounding variable can ONLY occur in within-subjects studies?[removed]A. Regression to the mean[removed]B. Diffusion of treatment[removed]C. Sequence effects[removed]D. TestingQuestion 31 of 402.5 PointsIn order to generalize across different times, places, or conditions, a researcher must:[removed]A. sample across those times, places, or conditions.[removed]B. use a random sample of participants.[removed]C. use a large enough sample size.[removed]D. use powerful statistics.Question 32 of 402.5 PointsWhen research participants give information to prospective participants about the procedures, the research could be affected by the confounding variable of:[removed]A. the bystander effect.[removed]B. diffusion of responsibility.[removed]C. diffusion of treatment.[removed]D. regression to the mean.Question 33 of 402.5 PointsSince the data on gender differences in mathematical ability tend to support both a nature and a nurture hypothesis, the __________ validity of any one interpretation is in doubt.[removed]A. internal[removed]B. construct[removed]C. statistical[removed]D. externalQuestion 34 of 402.5 PointsExperimenter effects do NOT result from the experimenter’s knowledge of the:[removed]A. hypothesis being tested.[removed]B. assignment of individual participants to conditions of the experiment.[removed]C. nature of the experiment and control conditions.[removed]D. specific details of the independent variable.Question 35 of 402.5 PointsAfter the statement of the problem has been clearly defined and the major variables identified, the next step in developing a research hypothesis is to:[removed]A. test the problem statement on research participants.[removed]B. operationally define the variables.[removed]C. analyze the data.[removed]D. interpret the results.Question 36 of 402.5 PointsIn research on the effects of noise on sleep, a researcher wonders whether disrupted sleep may be due to drinking coffee rather than to living near an airport. What type of hypothesis is this?[removed]A. A confounding variable hypothesis[removed]B. A null hypothesis[removed]C. A research hypothesis[removed]D. A moot hypothesisQuestion 37 of 402.5 PointsDoyen & colleagues (2012) found that __________ effects were the reason that participants changed their walking speed.[removed]A. experimenter[removed]B. subject[removed]C. both subject and experimenter[removed]D. neither subject nor experimenterQuestion 38 of 402.5 PointsWhich of the following is NOT characteristic of a good research hypothesis?[removed]A. It is a declarative statement.[removed]B. It identifies at least two variables.[removed]C. It states a predicted relationship.[removed]D. It is in the form of a question.Question 39 of 402.5 PointsThe reduction of extraneous variables is typically an advantage of:[removed]A. natural environments.[removed]B. laboratory settings.[removed]C. lower-constraint laboratory settings only.[removed]D. non-laboratory settings.Question 40 of 402.5 PointsExperimenter expectancies might be responsible for all of the following EXCEPT:[removed]A. directly influencing the participant’s behavior toward support of the hypothesis.[removed]B. selecting data that best support the hypothesis.[removed]C. minimizing demand characteristics.[removed]D. interpreting results in a biased manner.
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