1-Principalism, also known as the four-principal approach for ethical decision-making, focuses on the common ground moral principles. I would rank the importance of these four principles as the following:
- Nonmaleficence − A principle requiring that people not cause harm to others. Harm and its effects are considerations and part of the ethical decision-making process.
- Beneficence − A group of principles requiring that people prevent harm, provide benefits, and balance benefits against risks and costs. A nurse’s actions should promote good and do what is best for their patient.
- Respect for autonomy − A principle that requires respect for the decision making capacities of autonomous persons. Acknowledges a person’s right to take actions based on their values and beliefs.
- Justice − A group of principles requiring fair distribution of benefits, risks and costs. To treat others equally.
The Christian Narrative consists of four parts: creation, fall, redemption, and restoration. Regardless of the religion you choose to follow, there is nothing that exists that does not have God as its creator. (GCU, 2015)
I believe the four principles would be ordered in the context of the Christian biblical narrative as:
- Respect for autonomy
Lecture 3 Notes. GCU. 2015
Principles of medical ethics. Retrieved from (2018): https://www.jesuschristsavior.net/Ethics.html
2-You’ve defined utilitarianism correctly as the view that leads us to act in ways that produce the best outcome for the most people. But, as I read your last statement, it may sound as though the actions that we should really allow ourselves to pursue are those that provide the best outcome for our own happiness. Opposite of utilitarianism, we call this Ethical Egoism, meaning that we make ethical decisions based on how the outcome affects us individually. I don’t mean to imply that you intended that contradiction. I simply think its worth noting that although we want the best for all, we often find that we want the best outcome for ourselves first. Even the best intentions are often driven by the pursuit of own good.
How would you advise another nurse who is faced with a decision that he/she believed would produce the most good for the most people but, with closer reflection, it is apparent that it would serve their own good more, or at least before others?
3-The principle of Justice in health care is usually defined as a form of fairness, or as Aristotle once said, “giving to each that which is his due.” It is generally held that persons who are equals should qualify for equal treatment. This is borne out in the application of Medicare, which is available to all persons over the age of 65 years. This category of persons is equal with respect to this one factor, their age, but the criteria chosen says nothing about need or other noteworthy factors about the persons in this category.