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PICOT

Part 3. Review of the Literature

In this post you will provide a comprehensive Review of the Literature that you have found in your research about your PICOT question topic. Please see your textbook for the proper way to write a comprehensive review of the literature (ROL). You must review at least (at minimum) FIVE recent (< 5 years old) NURSING scholarly research articles related to your topic. You may add/discuss additional websites, textbooks or older articles but you must discuss and reference at least FIVE articles as described above.

You are required to attach your FIVE SCHOLARLY NURSING JOURNAL ARTICLES to your initial post.

Example – please note this is an older previous students work and so some references are older than 5 years.

Be sure to provide the PICOT question to begin this post.

PICOT Question:

P=Patient Population

I=Intervention

C=Comparison

O=Outcome

T=Time (duration):

 

In patients in the hospital, (P)

how does frequently provided patient hand washing (I)

compared with patient initiated hand washing (C)

affect hospital acquired infection (O)

within the hospital stay (T)

Review of the Literature:

Although there is a substantial amount of literature on the effect of hand washing in health care workers, there is not as much pertaining to patient hand hygiene and hospital acquired infection (HAI). Strigley, Furness, Gardam (2014), provide a study to measure the instances of hand washing. There were faults to the measurement but it did provide a system to specifically document the act of hand washing. The results reveal that there is a level of decrease of microorganisms on hands, which then leads to a decrease of transmission of infections (Strigley, Furness, Gardam, 2014). Aziz (2014) reveals that hand washing ranked as the number one most important infection prevention and control measure. The organizational staff is a key to this study (Aziz, 2014). Hand hygiene protocols are important to initiate to start the cycle of prevention (Gujral, 2015). In the study by Fox, Wavra, Drake, Mulligan, Bennet, Nelson, Kirkwood, Jones, and Badger (2015) results indicate a hand washing decreased catheter associated urinary tract infection although it was not a significant change. A limitation is that the study was limited to the critical care unit. In contrast, DiDiodato’s (2013) broader study of 12 million residents in Ontario showed a significant reduction in incidences of HAI related to hand washing. Further research is needed to study specifically the effect of the patient’s role in hand washing and HAI. Nursing research allows us to comprise new strategies to help bring awareness of hand hygiene to patients.

References

Aziz, A. (2014). Hand hygiene compliance for patient safety. British Journal of Healthcare Management, 20 (9), 428-434. Retrieved from http://www.magonlinelibrary.com/toc/bjhc/current

Fox, C., Wavra, T., Drake, D., Mulligan, D., Bennet Y., Nelson, C., Kirkwood, P., Jones, L., Bader, M. (2015). Use of a patient hand hygiene protocol to reduce hospital-acquired infections and improve nurses hand washing. American Journal of Critical Care, 24(3), 216-224. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2015898

Gujral, H. (2015.) Survey shows importance of hand washing for infection prevention. American Nurse Today, 10 (10), 20. Retrieved from hEp://www.nursingworld.org/AmericanNurseToday

Strigley, J., Furness, C., Gardam, M. (2014). Measurement of patient hand hygiene in multiorgan transplant units using a novel technology: An observation study. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 35 (11), 1336-1341. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/678419

DiDiodato, G. (2013). Has improved hand hygiene compliance reduced the risk of hospital-acquired infections among hospitalized patients in Ontario? Analysis of publicly reported patient safety days from 2008 to 2011. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 34 (6), 605-610.

PICOT

In response to your peers –

Be sure to refer to the provided article (Heavey, 2015). Provide meaningful feedback – for example;

Is the literature current and directly related to the question?

Did your peer provide strong support from the literature to support the question?

Did your peer support the Clinical Significance of the PICOT question with the literature?

*Please refer to the discussion rubric for discussion post requirements.

PICOT

Part 1. PICOT Question

Using one of the PICOT Questions Templates provided, present the PICOT question. Please use the attached template and then copy and paste it into your response. Do not attach the actual document.

NUR4166 Templates and Definitions for PICOT Questions_KU.docx  Part 2. Clinical Significance Statement

Briefly provide Clinical Significance supported by the literature. Clinical significance means that the literature provides evidence to support the practice as important to patient care, patient outcomes, and as such is the best choice for patient care.

Heavey, E. (2015). Differentiating statistical significance and clinical significance. AmericanNurseToday, 10(5), 26-28.

Heavey 2015.pdf Example – please note this is an older previous students work and so some references are older than 5 years. Be sure to provide the PICOT question to begin this post.

PICOT Question:

P=Patient Population

I=Intervention

C=Comparison

O=Outcome

T=Time (duration):

 

In patients in the hospital, (P)

how does frequently provided patient hand washing (I)

compared with patient initiated hand washing (C)

affect hospital acquired infection (O)

within the hospital stay (T)

Clinical Significance

Hand hygiene is one of the most advocated strategies in the hospital setting to reduce hospital acquired infection (HAI). According to Strigley, Furness, and Gardam (2014), patients were given real time location systems (RTLS) to count the number of times patients accessed a hand hygiene station (p 1336). There are four moments when hand hygiene may be indicated to reduce their risk of acquiring HAI, using the bathroom, before eating, and when entering and leaving their rooms (Strigley, Furness, Gardam, 2014, p 1336). The hospital floor consists of hand a sanitizer dispenser and soap dispensers with transponders that counted how many times the patients used the hand washing station. Organisms such as Clostridium difficile, or Norovirus may be transmitted from their own soiled hands (Strigley, Furness, Gardam, 2014, p 1336). Hand washing can reduce the number of organisms, which in turn can reduce infections. Although it might be hard to measure and gather more data on hand hygiene, the RTLS is one way to measure if hand hygiene is performed. Closely observing patients and reminding them can also increase the number of times patients wash their hands.

Strigley, J., Furness, C., Gardam, M. (2014). Measurement of patient hand hygiene in multiorgan transplant units using a novel technology: An observation study. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 35 (11), 1336-1341. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/678419

 

PICOT

capstone project Develop a searchable question using the PICOT format. (The question is a single statement identifying the components of PICOT.) Refer to “Developing a Question” and “Topic 1: Checklist.” 3 NRS 441v.v10.0RDeveloping a Question.docx 2 NRS 441v.11R.Module1_Checklist.doc NRS-441V: Capstone Project Developing a Question Recall the components of PICOT from your research course: (P) Population of Focus (I) Intervention (C) Comparison (O) Outcome (T) Time Identify each of the components in relation to your topic.

P – I – C – O – Then, develop a PICO question/statement. Examples of PICO questions/statements: In adult cardiac surgery patients experiencing post-operative pain (P) immediately following surgery (P), is morphine (I) or fentanyl (C), administered intravenously, more effective in reducing postoperative pain (O)? For immune-compromised patients, 50 years and older (P), does the use of pneumonia vaccine (I) reduce the future risk of pneumonia (O) compared with patients who have not received the vaccine (C)? Prepare for the capstone project by listening to the audio interview, “Capstone: Planning Your Project”. Preview and utilize the “Topic 1 Checklist.” This resource will assist you in organizing your work and will provide additional information regarding the assignment. Consider the clinical environment in which you are currently working or have recently worked. Collaborate with a leader or educator in the clinical environment to identify a problem, issue, or educational deficit upon which to build a proposal for change. In a paper of no more than 800 words, describe the nature of the problem, issue, or educational deficit. Include the following in your discussion: The setting and/or context in which the problem, issue, or educational deficit can be observed. Detailed description of the problem, issue, or educational deficit. Impact of the problem, issue, or educational deficit on the work environment, the quality of care provided by staff, and patient outcomes. Gravity of the problem, issue, or educational deficit and its significance to nursing. Proposed solution to address the problem, issue, or educational deficit. Prepare for the capstone project by listening to the audio interview, “Capstone: Planning Your Project,” located at http://lc.gcumedia.com/zwebassets/courseMaterialPages/nrs441v_capstone.php. Review “Topic 1: Checklist.” This resource will assist you in organizing your work and will provide additional information regarding the assignment. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.