through internet

In Bush’s administration, suicide   was introduced as one of the serious mental health problems among civilian   and veterans. In 2001 Bush’s agenda was focused in serving all person at risk   of suicide in US through network of local, certified crisis call center. This   program now called the National Suicide prevention lifeline. Agenda primary   focus was to make it available 24/7. In 2009 on supervision of Bush VA added   1-1 “chart service” for veteran who prefer to reach through internet (US   Department of Health and Human Services, 2012).

President Bush signed H.R.   327, the “Joshua Omvig Veterans Suicide Prevention Act” and H.R. 1284 the “   Veterans compensation cost-of-living adjustment act,2007) into law which   required VA to develop and implement a comprehensive program to reduce the   incidence of suicide among veterans and increase beneficiaries of veteran’s   disability compensation(Office of press secretary,2007).

 

Identify the allocations of   financial and other resources that the current and two previous presidents   dedicated to this issue.

The executive orders on   president’s Roadmap to empower Veteran’s and End a National Tragedy of   suicide establishes a task force that includes the secretaries of VA,   Defense, Health and Human services and Homeland security. Frequent meeting of   the taskforce is held for topic prevention of suicide which includes head of   other executive department and agencies to other senior officials in the   Whitehouse office. President Trump secured a record $73.1 billion in funding   for the VA to provide quality medical care which includes $8.6 billion for   mental services and $206 million for suicide prevention (Whitehouse, 2018).

The president has expanded   access to telehealth services to help reach more veterans through “Anywhere   to Anywhere” effective VA health care initiative (Whitehouse,2018).

Affordable Care Act (ACA)   created Prevention and public health fund which funded 27 grants for   prevention of suicide (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2012).

President George W Bush   signed the Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Act on October 21, 2004, turning bill   into law, the measure provides $82 million in grants to school, colleges,   universities and American Indian organization for development of suicide   prevention program (Kelvin,2004).

 

Explain how each of the   presidential administrations approached the issue.

President’s roadmap to   empower Veterans include a national research strategy for engaging with   public and private sector stakeholders to better understand the underlying   factors of suicide and lead to earlier identification and intervention, it   also includes a proposal for equipping state and local government with the   resource and tools to empower veteran communities. This roadmap helps to   create on active engagement with each veteran because 70 percent veteran   suicide without any mental assessment and intervention, it helps each veteran   for easy access of healthcare (Whitehouse,2018).

Mr. Trump’s order made a wide   range of mental health services available to all veterans as they transition   back to civilian society. Trump directed the department of VA for expansion   of health care to telemedicine, which has the potential to connect veteran   with care no matter where they live, and its use of technology allows former   service members to schedule appointment online. If VA can’t serve them   quickly then Veteran can go for private and allowance will be given (White   house,2018).

The Affordable Care Act   extends mental health and substance use disorder benefits and parity   protection to over 60 million Americans, helping men and women across country   to access critical care. Protection under the health care law prohibit   insurers from denying coverage because of pre- existing conditions, like a   diagnosis of mental health illness and require most insurance plan to cover   and recommended prevention service without co pays, including behavioral   assessment for children and depression screening( The White House,2018).

In February, Obama signed the   Clay Hunt suicide prevention for American Veteran Act to help fill serious   gaps for serving veterans with PTSD and other illness. Obama announced 19   executive actions to make it easier for veterans to access care, including   increasing the number of mental health providers at the department of   Veterans Affair (The White House,2018).

Suicide prevention national   strategy was first released in 2001, assembled by president George W Bush in   2002,the commission was asked to study mental health service delivery system,   to make recommendations that would enable adults with serious mental health   illness and children with serious emotional disturbance at work and    school. Participating fully in their communities, after one year of   study, reviewing and testimony the group issued its final report, which   identified six goals and corresponding recommendation. Activity in the filed   of suicide prevention has grown dramatically since the national strategy was   issued in 2001.Government agencies at all levels, school, nonprofit   organization and business have started program to address suicide prevention   (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2012).

The network of local   certified crisis call center was established in such a way that people in   crisis get their call transferred in nearest place so that suicide prevention   team can be in place of crisis quickly. There are greater than 100 suicide   call centers in 49 states. In October 2011, lifeline answered about 3 million   calls. (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2012).

 

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Rate in America

Identify the Population   Health concern you selected.

Unfortunate Elevation   of Suicide Rate in America

Identify the Population   Health concern you selected.

Unfortunate Elevation   of Suicide Rate in America

 

Describe the Population   Health concern you selected and the factors that contribute to it. 

Suicide is mental illness   when people direct violence at themselves with intent to end their life which   is a major public health problem and leading cause of death in America.   According to Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suicide is tenth   leading cause of death in US claiming the lives of over 47,0000 people.   During 2001 – 2017 total rate increase is 31 percent from 10.7 – 14.0 per   100,000 and in male suicide is four times higher than female (National   Institute of Mental Health).

 

Administration (President   Name)

(Current President)

Donald J Trump

(Previous President)

Barack Obama

(Previous President)

George W Bush

 

Describe the administrative   agenda focus related to this issue for the current and two previous   presidents.

President Trump issued a   “National call to Action to Empower Veterans and End the National tragedy by   Veteran Suicide”, this administrative agenda focuses on improving the quality   of life of America’s Veterans and ending the tragedy of veteran’s suicide.   Despite significant efforts and billions of dollar investment veteran’s   suicide has raise to 26 percent from 2005-2016. President’s aim through this   agenda is to revolutionize the VA healthcare system (U.S. Department of   Veterans affairs,2016).

President Trump signed, the   National Suicide Hotline Improvement Act of 2018, which made civilian to   access suicide crisis prevention by direct 3-digit number rather than long 10   digits (American Foundation for Suicide Prevention,2018).

In Obama’s administration,   Affordable Care Act played crucial role in extension of mental health and   substance use disorder benefits and parity protection among individuals who   were suffering from mental health illness. Obama also focused in prevention   of American Veteran suicide by making easy access to the mental health   providers. President proclaimed September 10,2015 as world suicide prevention   day by making awareness to citizen, government agencies, organization, health   care institute and research institute. He focused on prevention of bullying   and harassment which is major leading cause of suicide among teenagers

(The Whitehouse,2015).

 

Describe the Population   Health concern you selected and the factors that contribute to it. 

Suicide is mental illness   when people direct violence at themselves with intent to end their life which   is a major public health problem and leading cause of death in America.   According to Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suicide is tenth   leading cause of death in US claiming the lives of over 47,0000 people.   During 2001 – 2017 total rate increase is 31 percent from 10.7 – 14.0 per   100,000 and in male suicide is four times higher than female (National   Institute of Mental Health).

 

Administration (President   Name)

(Current President)

Donald J Trump

(Previous President)

Barack Obama

(Previous President)

George W Bush

 

Describe the administrative   agenda focus related to this issue for the current and two previous   presidents.

President Trump issued a   “National call to Action to Empower Veterans and End the National tragedy by   Veteran Suicide”, this administrative agenda focuses on improving the quality   of life of America’s Veterans and ending the tragedy of veteran’s suicide.   Despite significant efforts and billions of dollar investment veteran’s   suicide has raise to 26 percent from 2005-2016. President’s aim through this   agenda is to revolutionize the VA healthcare system (U.S. Department of   Veterans affairs,2016).

President Trump signed, the   National Suicide Hotline Improvement Act of 2018, which made civilian to   access suicide crisis prevention by direct 3-digit number rather than long 10   digits (American Foundation for Suicide Prevention,2018).

In Obama’s administration,   Affordable Care Act played crucial role in extension of mental health and   substance use disorder benefits and parity protection among individuals who   were suffering from mental health illness. Obama also focused in prevention   of American Veteran suicide by making easy access to the mental health   providers. President proclaimed September 10,2015 as world suicide prevention   day by making awareness to citizen, government agencies, organization, health   care institute and research institute. He focused on prevention of bullying   and harassment which is major leading cause of suicide among teenagers

(The Whitehouse,2015).

 

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the doctor

Made   the price transparent to the consumer allowing them to know what they paid   and what the insurance paid to the doctor

· He  established or expanded over 1200 community   centers in poverty areas.

· Increased   the NIH funding to allow for more research which led to the creation of the   HPV vaccine

· Helped   displaced workers by expanding the Trade Adjustment assistance program.

· Passed   the medical liability reform which cut down on frivolous lawsuits that drove   of health care cost

· Provided   additional assistance to low income Americans

 

Identify the allocations of   financial and other resources that the current and two previous presidents   dedicated to this issue.

2020 budget 87.1 billion for   HHS and a 248.8 billion in net health savings with focus on combating the   opioid epidemic, addressing mental health, decreasing prescription cost,   expanding asceses to health plans, expand Medicaid, reduce wasteful medical   spending, improve the integrity of Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP, asceses to   new technology, end HIV in America, prioritize health research, better   funding for  emergency preparedness, and  aid with older Americans,

2016 budget allocated 1,106   billion at 27% of the budget to healthcare and Medicare

He cut costs to Medicare at   182.7 billion over a five-year period and 17.4 billion in Medicaid. He scaled   back on what doctors, hospitals, and nursing homes were being compensated.

 

Explain how each of the   presidential administrations approached the issue.

Trump dismantled Obama care   stating that it was overpriced insurance that was not beneficial to the   consumer. He rid of the tax fee that was mandated for those who did not have   insurance. He works to get cost of insurance down while increasing the   quality of services provided to the everyday consumer. His goal is to have   the consumer have a transparent view of what they are paying for before they   buy.

Obama wanted to make   healthcare obtainable to everyone. He made a marketplace and required   everyone who could afford healthcare to purchase some form of plan, if you   did not buy this plan you were slapped with tax penalties. His thought   process in this was more people will be in the marketplace, making more money   for insurance providers, and this will ultimate drive down the cost of   insurance. He made money available to those who needed assistance with buying   insurance

Bush was in an economic   downfall. He was trying to help provide affordable healthcare to those who   needed it, but the money was not there to fulfill all his goals. He cut cost   to two of the most important insurance providers to Americans.

 

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Comparison Grid

 Agenda Comparison Grid

 

Identify the Population   Health concern you selected.

Health care cost

 

Describe the Population   Health concern you selected and the factors that contribute to it.

Middle class to low income   American

This population was chosen as it is the most   affected by health care costs in todays society

 

Administration (President   Name)

Donald Trump

Barrack Obama

George W. Bush

 

Describe the administrative   agenda focus related to this issue for the current and two previous   presidents.

· He   promises replace Obama care allowing the consumer to have insurers fighting   for their business making it more affordable for the middle class to low   income family

· Eliminate   insurance fees for the consumer who does not have a health insurance policy

· Eliminated   the payments made to the insurers that made it more likely for them to be   involved hit the health market

· He   allowed short term plans to be available for people up to three years.

· He   is making price transparency easier for the consumer to understand, which   drives down the cost and drives up the quality of service provided

· Prescription   drug prices are dropping making them more affordable.

· Requires   hospitals to make their prices available online so the consumer can shop   around

· Forcing   insurance providers to must provide cost estimates to the public to give them   an idea of what they will be paying out of pocket

· He   promised to make affordable health care a right for the consumer but not a   privilege.

· Allowed   children until the age of 26 to be covered by their parent’s insurance

· Prohibited   the cancellation of policies for people with costly illnesses

· Established   a health insurance marketplace

· Required   all Americans who could afford insurance to purchase it which he expected to   drive the cost of insurance down

· Expanded   community health centers and provided incentives for primary care doctors to   practice in communities in need

· Covered   HIV testing and treatment

· Established   finical assistance for those who cannot afford insurance without it.

· Gave   tax credits to small business owners who provided insurance to their staff.

· Had   payments from Medicare patients linked to quality of care

· Eliminated   coverage denials due to pre-existing conditions

· He   promised to expand coverage, improve cost, and improve quality of care.

· Created   the tax-free Health Savings Account (HSA) which eliminated out of pocket tax   pa

 

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What are the ethical implications

Chuck is an undergraduate psychology instructor at a local college. On a Saturday night he goes to his favorite bar and runs into one of his female students, Jessica, from his course last semester. They begin to talk and he buys her some drinks and they dance. As the evening progresses they both drink a little too much and she invites him to her apartment, where he ends up spending the night.

What are the ethical implications of this scenario? Does Chuck need to report this to his supervisor? How should he deal with Jessica if she is in one of his future classes? While the question of ethics should be apparent in this scenario, what ethical concerns might be present in day-to-day classroom interactions?

, Review and study this week’s Learning Resources, including the American Psychological Association’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct website and the Chuck scenario presented in the introduction to this assignment. Consider the ethical implications of this scenario. Think about whether Chuck needs to report this incident to his supervisor. Finally, reflect on strategies Chuck might use if Jessica is in one of his future classes.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post  an explanation of the ethical implications of Chuck’s actions in the scenario. Then explain whether Chuck needs to report this incident to his supervisor, providing specific reference to the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct in your response. Finally, explain two strategies Chuck might use if Jessica is in one of his future classes.

Be sure to support your post with specific references to the Learning Resources. If you are using additional articles, be sure to provide full, APA-formatted citations for your references.

 

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An explanation of your insights regarding how responses to the ethics survey differed based on the demographic categories in the ethics study

In the teaching environment, as in life, there are many circumstances in which ethics is called into question. As an instructor, you need to be able to determine the ethical implications of both your actions and the actions of others. Even if your actions are ethical, could others perceive them as unethical? Sometimes you will have an opportunity to think about it and seek the opinions of others, but often the situation requires an immediate decision. Being able to recognize the ethical implications of a given situation based on the actions of those involved, the potential problems that arise, the impact of those problems, and the nature of the communication that took place can inform your decisions. Other issues to consider are how age and gender might influence what behaviors individuals deem as unethical.

For this Assignment, first read the Tabachnick, Keith-Spiegel, and Pope article. Then review and consider the response categories as defined in the Table 4 footnote of the article. Think about which response category most closely aligns with how you might respond to each survey item. Consider how your responses compare to that of the survey participants. Reflect on any findings from the study that surprised you. Finally, review and study the other Learning Resources assigned for this week to further explore the role of ethics in the classroom.

Assignment (7 pages, APA format)

Submit a paper describing your reaction to the ethics study developed by Tabachnick, Keith-Spiegal, and Pope (2001). Your paper should include the following:

  • A brief description of your reactions to the questions posed in the ethics survey
  • An explanation of any elements of the ethics study that surprised you
  • An explanation of your insights regarding how responses to the ethics survey differed based on the demographic categories in the ethics study
  • An explanation of how your responses to the ethics survey differed from those in the ethics study and any implications that occur to you for your future teaching experiences

Be sure to cite specific references to the Learning Resources. If you are using additional articles, be sure to provide full, APA-formatted citations for your references.

 

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Can people who are politically liberal be equally authoritarian, intolerant, and prejudiced?

Authoritarianism is the personality trait most commonly associated with high levels of prejudice in adults. Defined simply, it is the tendency to follow the wishes of powerful others without thinking critically. Authoritarians have little tolerance for those whom they perceive to be different from themselves in race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or political values. Both traditional and contemporary psychologists have characterized authoritarians as politically conservative and averse to progressive thinking. Their high levels of prejudice are an expression of their right-wing political attitudes and their hostility toward those who disagree. Conservatives, on the other hand, argue that many liberals (particularly those in academic fields) have adopted a norm of “political correctness” leading them to be prejudiced and hostile in their own right. With which side do you agree? Is it true that authoritarian intolerance is a hallmark ONLY of political conservatism? Or, do conservatives have a point: Can people who are politically liberal be equally authoritarian, intolerant, and prejudiced?

NEEDS TO BE DONE IN 5 HOURS!

 

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How do young adults view  programs?

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. Main references come from Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018) and/or American Psychiatric Association. (2013). You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. I have also attached my discussion rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately with separate references for each response. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation like peer-reviewed, professional scholarly journals. If you draw from the internet, I encourage you to use websites from the major mental health professional associations (American Counseling Association, American Psychological Association, etc.) or federal agencies (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), etc.). I need this completed by 04/13/19 at 8pm.

Expectation:

Responses to peers. Note that this is measured by both the quantity and quality of your posts. Does your post contribute to continuing the discussion? Are your ideas supported with citations from the learning resources and other scholarly sources? Note that citations are expected for both your main post and your response posts. Note also, that, although it is often helpful and important to provide one or two sentence responses thanking somebody or supporting them or commiserating with them, those types of responses do not always further the discussion as much as they check in with the author. Such responses are appropriate and encouraged; however, they should be considered supplemental to more substantive responses, not sufficient by themselves.

Read a your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.

Respond in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question.

· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.

· Offer and support an opinion.

· Validate an idea with your own experience.

· Make a suggestion.

· Expand on your colleague’s posting.

1. Classmate (J. Car)

Overview of Alcoholics Anonymous

I chose to attend the 12-step program provided by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), as it is one of the most widely used mutual help groups since its inception in 1935. I was admittedly nervous and took a seat in the circle, unsure of how the meeting would go as a visitor. The group leader introduced herself and was very welcoming, asking me to introduce myself. As this was an open meeting, I shared that I was just visiting and the group was very supportive. The Serenity Prayer was said in unison to begin. The lesson of the evening was presented by a participant who recounted his experience and successes with AA in addition to how alcohol had destroyed both his marriage and his health. The 12-steps were mentioned in his description of how AA impacted him, specifically how he believed he was powerless over his addiction and gave credit to God as his higher power for rescuing him and helping him make amends in broken relationships. After listening to this recounting, it was easy to see how his journey back and forth within the 12 steps gave him hope that recovery was possible and solidarity in that others in the group would be striving to create a sober life that was worth living for (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). The member-run, highly personal, and relaxed atmosphere of the meeting made it a comfortable atmosphere for sharing highly sensitive personal information.

Role of Mutual Help Groups

Mutual help groups may provide an element of treatment that individual therapy cannot, that being the role of a sponsor in the life of the client, one who can be a part of every aspect of his or her life and not only within a counseling session. According to Van Wormer & Davis (2018), 74% of individuals who joined AA requested a sponsor within the first 90 days, showing the acquired desirability of mutual help when it is affirmed by others within the group. In contrast to Twelve Step Facilitation models implemented in treatment centers by professional therapists, the 12-steps utilized in AA do not make demands of members according to any sort of timeline, allowing individuals to choose what level of investment they wish to make in the group and how much effort they will put into following the steps. At this time, the predominant demographic of individuals attending AA meetings in the United States and Canada are middle-aged White males, meaning the format and content of the group may not necessarily be presented in a way that translates to individuals of other cultures (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Another drawback is the lack of empirical evidence of the effectiveness of AA, as using control groups and randomization is very difficult to achieve due to the lack of uniformity in attendees and leadership (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). While one major benefit of AA is the fact that it is run by lay people who are also members of the group, the long-term efficacy of treatment in these groups is difficult to record and implement data. However, the result of abstinence for individuals who attend AA meetings regularly remains high with or without supporting empirical research.

Relapse Prevention and Continuation of Care

Mutual help groups such as AA may be highly effective in alliance with individual psychotherapy due to the unique elements of personal sponsors, lack of pathologizing, and ownership within the group. With the accountability of an individual counselor, a sponsor, and members within the mutual help group, the client will be surrounded by support systems, potentially aiding in preventing relapse. Positive interactions within an AA community contribute to emotional health, having an effect on the brain that is similar to the relaxation experienced in yoga meditation (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Therefore, the AA community and treatment from a harm reduction perspective may be enough to empower a client to choose other methods of self-improvement including continuation of individual counseling. Following the 12-step method includes making amends and reconciling with those who have been harmed due to the client’s alcohol addiction, offering the potential for renewed support systems and inner healing to occur.

References

Greenfield, L., & Tonigan, J. S. (2013).The general Alcoholics Anonymous tools of recovery: The adoption of the 12-step practices and beliefs. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(3), 553–561.

Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

2. Classmate (A. Mc)

Overview: Celebrate Recovery

This week, I attended a “Celebrate Recovery” meeting at an interdenominational church in my area. While the group was created for substance and behavioral addictions, other behaviors were welcomed and accepted (e.g. anxiety, anger). Collectively, the group recognizes God as their higher power, singing worship songs and stating that they are a believer in Christ at the beginning of the meeting. The group is based on the 12-Step Recovery Model; the focus of this week was Step 4: We made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves. The handout given out to complete and think about included difficult questions related to four domains: relationship with others, priorities in life, attitude, and integrity. I found that even I could answer the provided questions and make a moral inventory of myself; in fact, I discovered a few pieces of my life that are still “broken.” Overall, the group was very supportive of each other and welcoming to an observer, like myself. I was able to watch someone receive a chip for walking through the doors for the first time and someone receive a chip for one full year of sobriety, both big accomplishments. The group even gave me a “first time” chip to keep as a memento!

Mutual Help Groups and the 12-Step Model

A major role of mutual help groups is to provide its participants a source of hope and a safe place to create a new identity (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). In other words, mutual help groups create a community of people with similar struggles. These individuals no longer have to feel alone and have a group of people supporting their journey to abstinence or health. Stories are shared of successes, such as the heroin addict who is eight years sober, a newlywed, and expecting his first child in three months. Hearing these stories instills feelings of hope and a better future.

The 12-Step Model executed in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings has been adopted by most, if not all, mutual help groups. Even so, the model has both strengths and weakness. The spiritual application in the 12-Step Model can prove to be both a strength and a weakness. For example, participants will always have a higher power that they can turn to and rely on in times of difficulty. On days when the meeting is not being held, an individual can step into a church to say a prayer (e.g. the serenity prayer) or open the bible as another source of strength. In contrast, the spiritual approach of the model can turn people away. In one qualitative study based on the interviews of young adults, a few research participants declared 12-step programs to be harmful and an act of using vulnerability to convince members to accept a higher power (Kingston, Knight, Williams, & Gordon, 2015). Ultimately, empirical evidence for the effectiveness of AA and similar 12-step programs is lacking (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). However, the programs are generally free to attend (or funded by small donations) and reliable (e.g. there are always meetings available to attend).

Relapse Prevention and Continuum of Care

It is safe to say that addiction is a life-long struggle. There will always be temptations and negative experiences that could be drowned out with an addictive substance or behavior. While individual therapy may not always be feasible or practical, especially for life, 12-step programs are. The continuous availability and support of 12-step programs is a huge piece of relapse prevention and continuum of care. The programs allow individuals who have terminated therapy to continue to work on themselves from the inside, out, all while creating a community and friendships with those who have similar goals.

References

Kingston, S., Knight, E., Williams, J., & Gordon, H. (2015). How do young adults view 12-step
programs? A qualitative study. Journal of addictive diseases, 34(4), 311-322.

Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th
ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

3. Classmate (N. Pra)

Overview

The mutual help group I chose was the Family Support Group of those who struggle with substance addictions. The Methadone clinic next door to my job offers these meetings weekly, and I decided to join in, both for the purpose of this discussion, and for my own family history. One of the main lessons I got from the group is that of unity. Everyone was extremely supportive of one another, and I felt an immediate connection to the group facilitator who ensured that each person had the respect and time they needed. Many of the individuals who attended had family members or spouses who were currently in a residential treatment facility for substance use. The group was similar to Narcotics Anonymous (NA) as it also follows the 12-step model. Although we did not touch much on each step specifically, the spirituality and hope that the 12 represent was the foundation to our meeting.

Addiction Recovery

Mutual help groups have been the backbone of sobriety since the early 1930s. They provide an outlet for those who suffer from addiction, and their families to bond with others and overcome the disease (BA, 2019). These groups provide an equal platform for individuals of all socioeconomic statuses to get the help they seek. Individual counseling, although not disputed as being another major component in promoting sobriety and preventing relapse, costs nearly 64% more than going to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) or Narcotics Anonymous (NA) (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018).
The 12-Step Model, which has modeled AA and NA, has its strengths and weaknesses. The first strength is that it pushes its members to self-reflect on their addiction and how it has effected their lives. Step 8 and Step 9 require the individual to write a list of people who have been harmed by their addiction, and to make amends with them (as long it does not cause further damage). Step 6 also requires the member to review their shortcomings, and to challenge themselves on being a better person by giving themselves over to God. A second strength is that the 12 Steps encourage the member to become spiritual. This spirituality increases their faith in themselves, in God, and in others. It also raises their mood, and uplifts their spirits in challenging times. One weakness of the 12-Step Model is that it there are not many evidence-based empirical studies completed on the long-term effects of sobriety (Greenfield & Tonigan, 2013). The second weakness is that since the model concentrates heavily on spirituality, it may unintentionally exclude members that identify as Atheist, or who have no beliefs. This may impede or prevent treatment for their addiction and sobriety.

Benefits

The 12-Step Model is a circle of life. It encourages the individual to seek their shortcomings, make amends with themselves, those they have hurt, and to meditate on their sobriety and internal strength. The last step, requires the member to sponsor another struggling individual who is in the program. This prevents relapse since the individual not only has themselves to keep in check, but their group members who are constantly supporting them in weekly meetings, and the member that they are sponsoring, who is depending on them also to maintain their sobriety (BA, 2019).

References

BA, C. B. M. (2019). Twelve-step programs for addicts. Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=94415578&site=eds-live&scope=site

Greenfield, B. L., & Tonigan, J. S. (2013). The General Alcoholics Anonymous Tools of Recovery: The adoption of 12-step practices and beliefs. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(3), 553–561. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/a0029268

Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Bottom of Form

Required Resources

  • Van      Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A      strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.
  • Chapter      9, “Mutual Help Groups and Spiritual/Religious Resources” (pp. 353-387)
  • Greenfield,      L., & Tonigan, J. S. (2013).The general Alcoholics Anonymous tools of      recovery: The adoption of the 12-step practices and beliefs. Psychology      of Addictive Behaviors, 27(3), 553–561.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Kelly,      J., & Teterian, J. D. (2011). The role of mutual help groups in      extending the framework of treatment. Alcohol Research &      Health, 33(4), 350–355.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • attachment

    USW1_COUN_6730_discussionPostingAndResponseRubric.doc
 

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xplain interpersonal psychotherapy’s theoretical underpinnings regarding transference and counter transference and its use in therapy.

you were asked to analyze the role of transference and counter-transference in relation to psychodynamic/relational therapy approaches, specifically the Interpersonal Psychotherapy approach, to help you better understand the role of transference and counter transference, and its use in therapy.

For this Assignment, you will continue to explore a more depth level understanding of transference and counter transference, further exploring the theoretical underpinnings as well as the associated interventions that might be used within an interpersonal psychotherapy approach, specifically addressing transference and counter transference.

To prepare for this Assignment:

· Review Learning Resources related to transference and countertransference

For this Assignment:

Write a 3- to 5- page paper (not including title and reference pages):

· Explain interpersonal psychotherapy’s theoretical underpinnings regarding transference and counter transference and its use in therapy.

· Explain the types of interventions from an interpersonal psychotherapy approach that are being used to address transference and counter transference in therapy.

Provide examples from the Learning Resources to support your explanations.

Use Full APA citations

 

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